The paper “Global-Scale Anycast Network Management with Verfploeter” will appear in the 17th IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, NOMS 2020, Budapest, Hungary.
You can download the entire paper here.
From the abstract:
Anycast has become a valuable tool for network operators. It plays a vital
role in making the DNS root system globally highly available and resilient to
stresses from e.g. DDoS attacks. Content delivery networks use it to direct
clients to local caches, and to absorb attack traffic. Yet managing an anycast
network is far from simple. Earlier work studying a DDoS attack on the DNS root
system, for example, shows that even highly distributed anycast networks can be
overwhelmed.To manage an anycast service, it is vital to know the catchment of
points of presence (PoPs) of the service. In earlier work, we introduced
"Verfploeter" a novel active measurement method to determine anycast catchments
using ICMP messages. Unlike previously existing approaches, Verfploeter is
unbiased, accurate and can be executed directly by the anycast operator without
the need for external vantage points. We demonstrated the efficacy of
Verfploeter on a testbed and small anycast service.In this paper, we take the
next step and deploy Verfploeter on one of the world's largest anycast
networks, the Cloudflare CDN with 192 PoPs worldwide. We perform real-world
case studies on network planning (what happens when PoPs are switched on or
off), troubleshooting (reachability issues of an anycasted prefix) and security
(detecting spoofed attack traffic). These case studies show that Verfploeter is
highly suitable for such a large-scale operation and gives operators vital
insights that allow them to improve network management practices of their
This paper was joint work by Wouter B. de Vries (University of Twente), Salman Aljammaz (Cloudflare) and Roland van Rijswijk-Deij (University of Twente and NLnet Labs).